 ## Wednesday, 9 May 2012

### Nota Bab 6 - Integer

INTEGERS  ### INTEGERS

A) Understanding Integers

1. An integer is a whole number with the positive

sign or negative sign, including zero which is

neither positive nor negative. 2. Positive and negative numbers include decimals

and fractions.

For example :-

(a) Positive numbers : +12, 8.5, + 11
2

(b) Negetive numbers : -15, - 3.6, - 33
4

3. Positive integers can be written without the '+' sign.

For example :-

+4 is usually written as 4.

Worked Example 1 From the numbers above, list all the

(a) integers,

(b) positive integers,

(c) negative integers.

Solution:

(a) - 5, -2, 0, +8 and 18

(b) +8 and 18

(c) -5 and -2

B) Representing Integers on Number Lines

1. Integers can be represented on either a horizontal

or a vertical number line.

2. Normally, a horizontal number line is used.

For example :- Worked Example 2

Draw a number line and mark the following numbers :-

- 15 , - 5, 10, 15

Solution : C) Comparing the Value of Two Integers

We can use the number line to compare the values

of integers. A given integer, x, is greater than all the

integers on its left but smalller than all the integers

on its right. Worked Example 3

In each of the following pairs of integers, state the

integer that is greater in value.

(a)  - 3, 2      (b) - 6, - 3

Solution: Worked Example 4

State the integer with the smaller value : - 5 or 0 D) Arranging Integers in Order

1. In increasing order, the integers are arranged

from the smallest to the largest.

For example :- 2. In decreasing order, the integers are arranged

from the largest to the smallest.

For example :- Worked Example 5

(a) Arrange the integers -6, 2, -1, +4, 0, - 2 in

increasing order.

(b) Arrange the integers 3, 0, 5, - 5, 6, - 4 in

decreasing order.

Solution:

(a) - 6, - 2, -1, 0, 2, +4

(b)  6, 5, 3, 0, - 4, - 5

E) Determining the Largest Integer or the Smallest Integer

Worked Example 6

Determine the largest integer and the smallest

integer in the following : 8, - 3, - 14, - 9, - 4, 7

Solution: F) Completing a Sequence of Integers

To complete a sequence of integers, it is necessary

to identify the pattern of the sequence.

Worked Example 7 State the integers that are represented by the letters

P, Q and R on the number line above.

Solution: Therefore, P = -8, Q = 0, R= 4

Worked Example 8

Complete the following sequence of integers.

- 12, - 9, - 6, __, __, __

Solution: G) Using Positive and Negative Integers in Real- life Situations

Positive and negative integers can be used in

the following contexts in real-life situations.

(a) An increase or a decrease in value

For example :-

(i) +RM100 represents an increase of Rm100

in price whereas -RM50 represents a decrease

of RM50 in price.

(ii) +60 sen represents a profit of 60 sen whereas

- 30 sen represents a loss of 30 sen.

(iii) +4 kg represents a mass gain of 4 kg whereas

- 6 kg represents a mass loss of 6 kg.

(b) A value which is either greater than or less than

zero.

For example :-

(i) +5oC represents 50C more than 00C whereas

- 20C represents 20C less than 00C.

(ii) As 0 m is the sea level, +3 m represents 3 m

above  sea level whereas -10 m below sea

level.

(c) A positive or a negative direction (i.e.opposite

directions)

For example :-

(i) If +8 km represents 8 km to the east, then -7 km

represents 7 km to the west.

(ii) If a lift which moves 4 floors upwards is repre-

sented by +4, then a lift which moves downwards

is represented by - 3.

Worked Example 9

Use positive or negative integers to represent the

following.

(a) A temperature rise of 180C

(b) 800 m below sea level

(c) A loss of RM70

Solution:

(a) +180C      (c) -RM70

(b) - 800 m

### ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF INTEGERS

A) Addition of integers

1. For a horizontal number line, the direction from left

to right indicates the positive direction while the

direction from right to left indicates the negative direction.

For example :- 2. For a vertical number line, and upward direction

indicates the positive direction indicates the negative

direction.

For example :
- 3. We can add two or more integers using a number line.

(a) When adding a positive integer, we move in the

positive direction on the number line.

(b) When adding a negative integer, we move in the

negative direction on the number line.

(c) Zero is usually taken as the starting point.

Worked Example 10

Solve the following by using the number lines.

(a) 3 + (+5)       (c) - 2+ (- 5)

(b) - 6 + 4         (d) 3 + (- 5)+(+8)

Solution:  Worked Example 11

Solve each of the following.

(a) - 9 + (+5)         (c) - 6 + (- 2)

(b) + 7 + (- 5)

Solution: B) Problem Solving involving Addition of Integers

Worked Example 12

A submarine which is 9 km below sea level

moves up 3 km. What is the position of the

submarine now ?

Solution:

1. Understand the problem

Given information :

The submarine is 9 km below sea level.

It moves up 3 km.

Find : Final position of the submarine

2. Devise a plan

3. Carry out the plan

- 9 + 4 = - 5

Therefore, the submarine is 5 km below sea

level now.

4. Check C) Subtraction of Integers

1. Subtraction of integers is to find the difference

between two integers.

2. We can use a number line to find the difference

between two integers.

3. The difference can be determined by counting the

number of units to be moved from the second integer

to the first integer. The direction of the movement will

Worked Example 13

Solve the following by using number line.

(a) 3 - 5            (c) - 2 - 4

(b) 8 - (+4)        (d) 0 - (- 7)

Solution:  Worked Example 14

Find the value of each of the following.

(a) 8 - (+5)

(b) 6 - (- 3)

(c) - 9 - (- 9)

Solution: Worked Example 15

Find the value of each of the following.

(a) 30 - (+18) - (- 6)

(b) - 21 - (- 7) - (- 13)

Solution:

(a) 30 - (+18) - (- 6) = 30 - 18 + 6

= 12 + 6

= 18

(b) - 21 - (- 7) - ( - 13) = - 21 + 7 + 13

= - 14 + 13

= -1

D) Problem Solving involving Subtraction of Integers

A submarine is 8 m below sea level. An eagle is 3 m

above sea level directly above the submarine. What

is the distance between the submarine and the eagle?

Solution :

1. Understand the problem

Given information :

A submarine is 8 m below sea level.

An eagle is 3 m above sea level.

Find : Distance between the submarine

and the eagle

2. Devise a plan

Use subtraction.

3. Carry out the plan

3 - (- 8) = 3 + 8 = 11

Therefore, the distance between the submarine

and the eagle is 11 m.

4. Check E) Combined Operations of Addition and Subtraction of Integers

Worked Example 17

Find the value of each of the following.

(a) 25 - (+30) + (- 12)

(b) - 12 - (- 26) + (- 15)

Solution:

(a) 25 - (+30) + (- 12)

= 25 - 30 - 12

= - 5 - 12

= - 17

(b) - 12 - (- 26) + (- 15)

= - 12 + 26 - 15

= 14 - 15

= - 1

F) Problem Solving involving Addition and Subtraction of Integers

Worked Example 18

A diver at 7 m below sea level swam up 3 m. A

turtle at that moment was 2 m below sea level.

What was the distance between them when the

turtle was directly above the diver?

Solution:

1. Understand the problem

Given information :

The diver was 7 m below sea level at first.

He swam up 3 m.

The turtle is 2 m below sea level.

Find : Distance between the diver and the turtle.

2. Devise a plan

Use addition and subtraction.

3. Carry out the plan

(- 7 + 3) - (-5) = (- 7 + 3) + 5

= - 4 + 5

= 1

Therefore, the distance between the diver and

the turtle was 1 m.

4. Check ### GLOSSARY

1. Integers- integer
2. Positive Integers- integer positif
3. Negative Integers- integer negatif
4. Positive Number- nombor positif
5. Negative Number- nombor negatif
6. Inverse- songsangan
7. Like signs- tanda serupa
8. Unlike signs- tanda tak serupa
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